Vitamin D supplementation can boost Treg levels. The fact that vitamin D deficiency is pretty common in populations worldwide and has been associated with an important increase risk of pneumonia and viral upper respiratory tract infections demonstrates the relevance of vitamin D in cases of respiratory infection. Vitamin D deficiency affects 30–60% of Western, Southern, and Eastern European populations and up to 80% of Middle Eastern populations. Furthermore, more severe deficiency (serum levels of 30 nmol/L) has been reported in more than 10% of Europeans.
Vitamin D low levels are also linked to an increase in inflammatory cytokines.
A study of healthy women in the United States discovered a significant inverse relationship between serum 25(OH)D and TNF-alpha levels.
Another study discovered that those who were vitamin D deficient had higher levels of IL6. Vitamin D3 has been shown in numerous animal studies and in vitro cell models to reduce the production of inflammatory cytokines like TNF-alpha and IL6 while widening inhibitory cytokines. These findings raise the possibility that adequate vitamin D levels may reduce cytokine storms in COVID-19.
COVID-19 patients are prone to thrombotic complications. D-dimer levels were noticed to be higher in more than half of those with severe disease. Interestingly, vitamin D is also linked to the regulation of thrombotic pathways, and a lack of vitamin D is linked to an increase in thrombotic episodes. 11 Vitamin D deficiency has also been linked to an increased risk of obesity and diabetes. COVID-19 has a higher mortality rate for these conditions. COVID-19 is associated with an increased risk of death in black, Asian, and minority ethnic (BAME) populations.
A lack of vitamin D is also linked to an increase in thrombotic episodes. Vitamin D deficiency has also been linked to an increased risk of obesity and diabetes. COVID-19 has a higher mortality rate for these conditions. COVID-19 is associated with an increased risk of death in black, Asian, and minority ethnic (BAME) populations
One frequently asked question about COVID-19 is whether a patient who has had the infection is unlikely to be infected again at a later date. The answer is still unknown, and it is partially dependent on the production, longevity, and efficacy of the specific antibodies. In the case of the influenza A virus (IAV), however, infection results in memory regulatory T cells (mTregs), which remain in the host. When mice are infected with influenza A, infusion of mTregs into their tail vein considerably reduces weight loss and lung pathology, especially the inflammatory infiltrate, compared to infusion of Tregs that have not been exposed to the virus before. This study demonstrates Tregs’ potential efficacy in combating viral infection. Because women have more Treg cells than men, this finding could explain why women have a lower mortality rate when infected with COVID-19.