This is an overview of everything new and interesting that happened in nutrition science in the past week, from last Friday until today.
Past Week in Nutrition Science (Feb 13th)
We reviewed two new studies this week:
Study: Rueda-Clausen et al. Health Benefits of Long-Term Weight Loss Maintenance. Annual Reviews of Nutrition, 2015.
Summary: This was a review of all the powerful health benefits that obese people experience if they manage to lose weight and keep it off for a long time.
Study: Boden et al. Excessive Caloric Intake Acutely Causes Oxidative Stress, GLUT4 carbonylation, and insulin resistance in healthy men. Science Translational Medicine 2015.
Summary: This is a controlled trial in a metabolic ward that got quite a lot of media attention this week. It was a study in 6 men who were overfed 2.5 times their normal calorie intake and confined to a room where they didn’t perform any physical activity.
This study found that these men became insulin resistant in a short amount of time. The mechanism seemed to be increased oxidative stress inside fat cells, which inactivated the insulin-regulated glucose transporters (GLUT-4) in the cells.
This may shed some light on what ultimately causes insulin resistance, which is believed to be a major driver of many common diseases. This includes type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease.
Other Studies and Papers From Around The Web
Many interesting studies were published in the past week.
Diets and Diet Patterns
Study: Estefanía Toledo, et al. Mediterranean Diet and Invasive Breast Cancer Risk Among Women at High Cardiovascular Risk in the PREDIMED Trial. JAMA Internal Medicine, 2015.
Summary: This paper based on data from the PREDIMED study found that a Mediterranean diet with extra-virgin olive oil reduced breast cancer risk by 0.68%, but a Mediterranean diet with nuts reduced the risk by a non-significant 41%.
They found that each 5% increase in calories from extra-virgin olive oil reduced the risk of breast cancer by 28%. Given that breast cancer is the most common cancer in women, this is an important finding.
Obesity and Weight Loss
Study: Clemens Drenowatz. Reciprocal Compensation to Changes in Dietary Intake and Energy Expenditure within the Concept of Energy Balance. Advances in Nutrition, 2015.
Summary: A review of the compensatory changes that happen when people try to lose weight with increased physical activity and/or reduced calorie intake.
Study: Bridget M. Hron, et al. Relationship of insulin dynamics to body composition and resting energy expenditure following weight loss. Obesity, 2015.
Summary: This controlled trial examined the effects of different levels of carbohydrate intake, insulin and the risk of weight gain after losing 10-15% of body weight. This study showed that insulin levels after feeding predicted weight gain in some individuals.
Study: Lorena del Rocío Ibarra-Reynoso, et al. Dietary restriction in obese children and its relation with eating behavior, fibroblast growth factor 21 and leptin: a prospective clinical intervention study. Nutrition and Metabolism, 2015.
Summary: A review of restricting either carbohydrates and fat in obese children, and its effects on metabolic and hormonal parameters.
Study: Johannes Hofmann, et al. Dietary restraint and impulsivity modulate neural responses to food in adolescents with obesity and healthy adolescents. Obesity, 2015.
Summary: This study looked at brain responses to images of food. Individuals considered “impulsive” had greater responses, as well as individuals who were on restrained diets.
Study: Melissa Gabbs, et al. Advances in Our Understanding of Oxylipins Derived from Dietary PUFAs. Advances in Nutrition, 2015.
Summary: A review of the roles and health effects of signalling molecules produced out of polyunsaturated omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in cells.
Study: Humaira Jamshed, et al. Dietary Almonds Increase Serum HDL Cholesterol in Coronary Artery Disease Patients in a Randomized Controlled Trial. American Society for Nutrition, 2015.
Summary: This controlled trial in 150 heart disease patients found that 10 grams of almonds had major benefits for blood lipids. The almonds increased HDL levels by 12-16% and also lowered triglycerides, LDL and others.
Study: Zhang Y, et al. Caffeine and diuresis during rest and exercise: A meta-analysis. Journal of science and medicine in sport, 2015.
Summary: This was a meta-analysis of 16 studies showing that caffeine intake has only minor diuretic effects, but almost none if it was taken before exercise. There is really no evidence that caffeine has a major effect on the risk of dehydration.
Study: Wong A, et al. Detection of antibiotic resistance in probiotics of dietary supplements. Nutrition Journal, 2015.
Summary: A review of the presence of antibiotic resistance in probiotic bacteria. There is a possibility that they could transfer genes to pathogenic bacteria, making them resistant to common antibiotics as well.
Study: Hyun-San Shin, et al. Postprandial effects of a polyphenolic grape extract (PGE) supplement on appetite and food intake: a randomised dose-comparison trial.Nutrition Journal, 2015.
Summary: This randomized controlled trial found no effect of high polyphenolic grape extract (PGE) on hunger, appetite or food intake.
Study: Tatiana Ederich Lehnen, et al. A review on effects of conjugated linoleic fatty acid (CLA) upon body composition and energetic metabolism. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 2015.
Summary: This review looked at the evidence behind conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and effects on body composition and energy metabolism. As before, the evidence is mixed.
Nutrition For Pregnant Women and Children
Study:Julia L Finkelstein, et al. Vitamin B-12 and Perinatal Health. Advances in Nutrition, 2015.
Summary: A review of the role of vitamin B12 in the health of mother and child. A deficiency in vitamin B12 is common, and can have major consequences in pregnancy.
Study: Suthutvoravut U, et al. Composition of Follow-Up Formula for Young Children Aged 12-36 Months: Recommendations of an International Expert Group Coordinated by the Nutrition Association of Thailand and the Early Nutrition Academy. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, 2015.
Summary: Recommendations on the nutrient composition of follow-up formula for 12-36 month old children.
Study: Francesca Pistollato, et al. Plant-Based and Plant-Rich Diet Patterns during Gestation: Beneficial Effects and Possible Shortcomings. Advances in Nutrition, 2015.
Summary: A review of the benefits and shortcomings of plant-based nutrition for pregnant women and their offspring. Plant-based diets tend to be high in some nutrients, but may be lacking in nutrients like B12, omega-3 fatty acids and others.